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Lew Olson's newly revised edition is filled with an abundance of new topics and information. Whether you are new to home feeding or a seasoned raw feeder, have a senior dog or a new puppy, a pregnant mom or a toy breed, this book presents all the information you need to make the best nutritional decisions for your dog. 

Last month, in “Let’s Talk about Sugar and Dogs” we addressed many of the questions people ask about carbohydrates. We talked about the different types of carbohydrates, which ones are best to feed, which diets have and/or need carbohydrates, and how the different carbohydrates can affect certain health conditions.

For any dog, the best diets are homemade, either cooked or raw. Raw is probably the most beneficial, as it can be served with NO carbohydrates. This is because the raw bone in the diet acts as the ‘fiber’ needed to provide firm stools. For more information on a raw diet, I would refer to my book, “Raw and Natural Nutrition for Dogs”. A raw diet is fed in two meals per day. One meal is raw meaty bones and the other meal is a mix of muscle meat, a bit of organ meat and eggs and yogurt.

This month, we include home cooked low sugar diets and include several low glycemic recipes that benefit the health conditions we spoke about last month, which included epilepsy, diabetes, and hypothyroidism. We also discuss additional health issues including cancer, arthritis, allergies and yeast overgrowth and offer recipes to help with these conditions.

It is also good to know that diets high in carbohydrates (sugar) can affect fertility in dogs, both males and females. High sugar content in the diet can affect hormones in an adverse way, that lowers sperm count and a females ability to get pregnant. For more on that:  https://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/causes-of-infertility-in-dogs/

The recipes listed below are low-glycemic and reduced fat recipes. While these recipes are good for any dog for their best long-term health, they are especially beneficial for dogs with Epilepsy, hypothyroidism and diabetes.

The amount to feed is approximately 2% to 3% of the dog’s body weight.* If you do not have a food scale to weigh out the food, one pound of food equals approximately two cups.

100 lb. dog = 2 lb. to 3 lb. daily, or two meals of 1 to 1-1/2 lbs. each

75 lb. dog = 1-1/2 lb. to 2-3/4 lb. daily or two meals of 12 oz. to 18 oz. each

50 lb. dog = 1 lb. to 1-1/2 lb. daily, or two meals of 8 oz. to 12 oz. each

25 lb. dog = 8 oz. to 12 oz. daily, or two meals of 4 oz. to 6 oz. each

*Smaller dogs often have higher metabolisms, and *may* (not always) need more than the 2% to 3% of their body weight and often do better with three smaller meals a day, especially toy breeds.

*Puppies under the age of six months require three to four meals per day and they need a bit more calcium; about 1500 mg per pound of food served while they are growing. Puppies will eat about 10% of their body weight at 8 weeks of age or 2% to 3% of their anticipated adult weight.

For all home cooked diets, you MUST add in Calcium at 900 mg. per pound of food served. Other recommended supplements include EPA fish oil capsules at one capsule (180 EPA/120 DHA) per twenty to thirty pounds of body weight daily. Do NOT add minerals, as the variety in the diet will provide all the needed minerals. However, adding in vitamins, such as vitamin E and vitamin B complex, is recommended.

For diet changes, probiotics and digestive enzymes are helpful. Berte’s Immune Blend contains vitamin C, vitamin E, B complex, enzymes and probiotics. For a daily vitamin blend without enzymes and probiotics, there is also Berte’s Daily Blend. This vitamin blend contains kelp and alfalfa, which provide trace minerals.

Do not overcook the meat! To retain more of the nutrients, lightly cook the meat.

The sample diets below will feed one meal for a 100 lb. dog, two meals for a 50 lb. dog, or four meals for a 25 lb. dog.

Sample Diet One:

  • 1 lb. low fat hamburger
  • 4 oz. beef liver or kidney
  • 1 or 2 egg whites, no yolks, scrambled or soft boiled
  • 1/2 cup steamed or boiled broccoli
  • 1/2 cup cooked yellow crookneck squash
  • 4 oz. nonfat milk yogurt

Cook meat, eggs, vegetables, and mix. When cooled, add yogurt.

To this, add:

Sample Diet Two:

  • 1 lb. white meat chicken with no skin
  • 4 oz. of chicken liver
  • 1 or 2 egg whites, no yolk, scrambled or soft boiled
  • 1/2 cup steamed or boiled Spinach
  • 1/2 cup cooked cabbage
  • 4 oz. nonfat Cottage Cheese

Cook meat, eggs, vegetables, and mix. When cooled, add cottage cheese.

To this, add:

Sample Diet Three:

  • 1 lb. beef heart, cut into small pieces
  • 4 oz. of pork or beef liver
  • 1 or 2 egg whites, scrambled or soft boiled
  • 1/2 cup steamed or boiled Bok Choy or Chinese cabbage
  • 1/2 cup zucchini
  • 4 oz. nonfat Yogurt

Cook meat, eggs, vegetables, and mix. When cooled, add yogurt.

To this, add:

Sample Diet Four:

  • One 16 oz. can of Mackerel or Salmon, drained and rinsed
  • 1 or 2 egg whites, scrambled or soft boiled
  • 1/2 cup broccoli
  • 1/2 cup Kale or other dark leafy green
  • 4 oz. nonfat Cottage Cheese

Cook vegetables and eggs (no need to cook the canned fish, it is already cooked) and mix. You do NOT need to add calcium to this recipe as mackerel, salmon or sardines, already contain soft, steamed bones for calcium content.

To this, add:

Dogs with cancer, arthritis and allergies also benefit greatly when they eat a low glycemic diet, however for these diseases, higher amounts of fat are better.

Cancer

Cancer cells use sugar found in the body for energy. Therefore, elimination of high glycemic foods is important. Additionally, it is very important to ensure the diet consists of high quality animal protein and fat sources. Higher fat is recommended to maintain weight and help with energy. More information on Nutrition for Dogs with Cancer and diets for dogs with cancer can be found in this newsletter: http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/cancer-diet/

Arthritis

A primary concern with dogs that have arthritis is managing their pain. Inflammation causes pain, so it is important to do what you can to reduce inflammation. Carbohydrates can aggravate inflammation, especially grains and vegetables from the nightshade family of vegetables. These include tomatoes, potatoes, peppers and eggplant.

By avoiding these foods, you can help keep your dog’s inflammation down, which helps manage their pain. Another way to help reduce stress on the joints and the inflammation that accompanies this excess stress is to make sure your dog is lean and maintains a healthy weight. The sugar content in grains and starches are high in calories and can cause weight gain and aggravate inflammation. Avoiding grains and starchy vegetables helps with weight loss and maintaining a healthy weight, so additional stress on sore joints can be avoided.

Commercial dog foods can be very high in grains and starches. These foods can aggravate your dog’s arthritic condition and cause your dog to gain weight.

Some supplements that are very beneficial for reducing inflammation and helping to manage pain are:

EPA fish oil: The omega 3 fatty acids found in fish oil help control inflammation.

Yucca Intensive: An herbal tincture made from fresh yucca that contains saponins. Saponins are a natural steroid that helps reduce inflammation and pain. Yucca should be given at one drop per ten pounds of body weight, twice daily WITH meals. (Do not give this supplement on an empty stomach!)

Willow Bark: This is a natural form of aspirin and contains the whole herb. It is thought to be safer to use for dogs, and like Yucca, MUST be given with food! You can use this supplement as needed, rather than daily.

Home cooking provides a more nutritious way of controlling what your dog eats. With the recipe suggestions offered here, you have a basis for a balanced diet (calcium to phosphorus ratio and the amounts of animal protein and fat), but you can choose the ingredients that best suit your dog. Never forget about the importance of variety! Dogs require a balance of amino acids and nutrients. This can only come by offering the widest variety of proteins and foods your dog can tolerate. Feeding the same thing repeatedly can result in not only more allergy issues, but also nutrient deficiencies.

Omega 3 fatty acids found in fish oil can help with skin and coat and can help reduce inflammation in red, itchy skin.

DMG liquid (Dimethylglycine) can also help with skin and allergy conditions. It can help support the immune system and helps ‘regulate’ the reactions to allergic substances.

Yeast Overgrowth

Low sugar diets also help combat topical yeast problems in dogs, most commonly found on the skin (feet and near the anus) and the ears. Antibiotic use can kill off and deplete the beneficial bacteria in the body. This beneficial bacterium naturally fights off yeast. When this bacterium is depleted, it provides an environment for yeast to grow. Some of the symptoms that arise with yeast overgrowth mimic allergy symptoms. As a result, the two issues can ‘ping-pong’ back and forth. A visit to your Veterinarian is the best way to determine if your dog has a yeast problem. A skin culture can be done to determine whether the problem is yeast or allergies. It is very important to know what the real issue is so it can be treated properly.

If it is determined your dog is suffering from yeast, adding a probiotic powder to your dog’s diet helps fight yeast overgrowth by adding back in to the body the healthy level of good bacteria needed. Another way to fight yeast overgrowth is to offer frequent baths with an oatmeal based shampoo and rinse with a 50/50 solution of white vinegar and water. Olive leaf Extract and Yeast and Fungal tincture are also helpful in combating yeast issues.

For more reading on yeast problems, go here: http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/scratching-and-itching-could-it-be-yeast/

Incontinence

Incontinence is the leaking of urine. Chronic conditions can lead to rashes, irritation and urinary tract infections. It is thought that grains and starches may aggravate incontinence in spayed females and senior dogs. Removing grains from the diet can alleviate the problem and sometimes completely stop the incontinence without having to resort to prescription medications. The herbal tincture blend, Kidni Care, can help strengthen and tone urinary tract muscles.

For more information on incontinence and diet, see Aunt Jeni’s article:

http://www.auntjeni.com/pdf%20files/Incontinence.pdf

A natural diet that offers variety is very helpful for all these conditions. Cooked diets can be made in large batches, packaged into meal-sized portions, and frozen for later use. Feeding amounts are the same as they were previously listed.

The amount to feed is approximately 2% to 3% of the dog’s body weight.

100 lb. dog = 2 lb. to 3 lb. daily, or two meals of 1 to 1-1/2 lbs. each

75 lb. dog = 1-1/2 lb. to 2-3/4 lb. daily or two meals of 12 oz. to 18 oz. each

50 lb. dog = 1 lb. to 1-1/2 lb. daily, or two meals of 8 oz. to 12 oz. each

25 lb. dog = 8 oz. to 12 oz. daily, or two meals of 4 oz. to 6 oz. each

One cup is approximately 8 ounces, or 1/2 pound. Some dogs will do well on two meals a day; others may need three or four smaller meals a day.

As mentioned earlier, do not overcook the meat! To retain more of the nutrients, it is best to lightly cook the meat. Butter can be used for cooking to add flavor and palatability. If you are using butter, unsalted is best for dogs with kidney or heart problems.

The sample diets below will feed one meal for a 100 lb. dog, two meals for a 50 lb. dog, or four meals for a 25 lb. dog.

Sample Diet One:

  • 1 lb. regular hamburger
  • 4 oz. beef liver or kidney, cook with small amount of butter
  • 1 or 2 eggs, scrambled or soft boiled
  • 1/2 cup steamed or boiled broccoli
  • 1/2 cup cooked yellow crookneck squash
  • 4 oz. whole milk yogurt

Cook meat, eggs, vegetables, and mix. When cooled, add yogurt.

To this, add:

Sample Diet Two:

  • 1 lb. ground chicken
  • 4 oz. of chicken liver, cook with small amount of butter
  • 1 or 2 eggs, scrambled or soft boiled
  • 1/2 cup steamed or boiled Spinach
  • 1/2 cup cooked cabbage
  • 4 oz. Cottage Cheese

Cook meat, eggs, vegetables, and mix. When cooled, add cottage cheese.

To this, add:

Sample Diet Three:

  • 1 lb. ground pork
  • 4 oz. of pork or beef liver, cook with small amount of butter
  • 1 or 2 eggs, scrambled or soft boiled
  • 1/2 cup steamed or boiled Bok Choy or Chinese cabbage
  • 1/2 cup zucchini
  • 4 oz. Whole Milk Yogurt

Cook meat, eggs, vegetables, and mix. When cooled, add yogurt.

To this, add:

Sample Diet Four:

  • 1 can 16 oz. Mackerel or Salmon
  • 1 or 2 eggs, scrambled or soft boiled
  • 1/2 cup broccoli
  • 1/2 cup Kale or other dark leafy green
  • 4 oz. Cottage Cheese

Cook vegetables and eggs (no need to cook the canned fish, it is already cooked) and mix. No calcium is needed as mackerel, salmon or sardines already contain soft, steamed bones for calcium content.

To this, add:

Conclusion

While carbohydrates (sugar) are not necessary in a dog’s diet, they can be useful when you are dealing with certain health conditions. Carbohydrates are used in home cooked diets for the sole purpose of adding fiber to the diet. In dogs with certain liver or renal issues, carbohydrates are needed to add calories, absorb ammonia, and reduce phosphorus in the diet.

However, using too many carbohydrates can cause larger and smellier stools, produce gas, and cause unnecessary weight gain. Because carbohydrates convert to sugar, they can also adversely affect dogs with epilepsy, diabetes, and hypothyroid conditions, as well as dogs with cancer, arthritis, allergies, yeast issues and incontinence.

It is important to know these variables so you can make the best, most informed, decisions on whether carbohydrates can help or hinder your dog’s health. It is not a question of whether carbohydrates are good or bad. It is about making the best decision for your dog based on their individual needs.

If you find this two-part article helpful and would like more information, we recommend Lew Olson’s recently published book, ‘Raw and Natural Nutrition for Dogs’. This book is an easy read with more great information on diet and supplement recommendations for the various health conditions discussed in these two articles.

Happy Saint Patrick’s Day!



Filed Under (Dog Nutrition) by B-Naturals.com on 02-02-2017
Lew Olson's newly revised edition is filled with an abundance of new topics and information. Whether you are new to home feeding or a seasoned raw feeder, have a senior dog or a new puppy, a pregnant mom or a toy breed, this book presents all the information you need to make the best nutritional decisions for your dog. 

 

 

Whether people feed a commercial dog food, a home-cooked diet, a raw diet, or a special needs diet for a specific health condition, I am frequently asked questions about carbohydrates. The most common question asked is, ‘Which carbohydrates are the best to add into my dog’s diet?’ While the question may appear to be a simple one, the answer is not! The subject is complex, so we are splitting this newsletter into two parts.

 

Part I addresses the many questions people ask about carbohydrates. We will look at the different types, which are best carbohydrates to feed, when they are needed, and how different carbohydrates can affect various health conditions.

 

Part II, which we will bring to you in March’s newsletter, addresses more health conditions, discusses the benefits of low glycemic (sugar) diets, and includes several low glycemic recipes, which benefit a wide variety of health conditions.

 

Carbohydrates

 

There are two kinds of carbohydrates: simple and complex. All grains, vegetables and fruits are carbohydrates. All carbohydrates break down into chains of sugar. However, there are differences between the sugar chains of simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates. Examples of simple carbohydrates that break down into simple sugar chains include white refined sugar, honey, molasses, white flour and fruit juice. Examples of complex carbohydrates that break down into more complex sugar chains include grains such as oats, rice, barley, and vegetables such as beans, lentils, and potatoes. It is important to know how these sugars affect canines and to understand what the purpose of carbohydrates are in a canine’s diet.

 

Commercial Pet Food

 

All commercial dog foods contain carbohydrates. The carbohydrates used in commercial pet foods are inexpensive, high-fiber ingredients that allow the dry food to maintain a longer shelf life and to help firm stools. Carbohydrates are a benefit in this regard; however, they are also a liability and can compromise the health and well-being of our dogs.

 

Carbohydrates offer less, or no, nutrition to dogs than animal proteins and fats. While the fiber helps firm stools, they also create larger, looser stools that have a much stronger odor and can cause gas and bloating. If you feed a commercial dog food, it is important to do your research. You want to select a food that contains a quality animal protein and offers the least amount of carbohydrates. Some commercial dog foods are ‘grain free,’ however; grain free foods are not carbohydrate (sugar) free! Most grainless commercial foods use either potatoes or sweet potatoes. These grainless foods can be a benefit to dogs that have certain grain allergies or gluten intolerance (which are rare), but these foods are still high in sugar and offer no nutrients.

 

Home Cooked Diets

 

Carbohydrates are used in home cooked diets simply to add fiber to the diet to keep the dog’s stool firm. Bones, which are used in raw diets for calcium and for firm stools, are not used in home cooked diets so a fiber source is needed. When using carbohydrates in home cooked diets, I recommend using about 75% animal-based protein and 25% carbohydrates. When selecting vegetables for home cooked diets, I recommend low glycemic (sugar) vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, yellow squash and zucchini. I avoid using potatoes, sweet potatoes, peas, carrots, winter squash and beans. I also avoid all vegetables from the nightshade family, such as tomatoes, peppers, and eggplant. When feeding vegetables, they must be fully cooked or pureed to breakdown the cell wall of the carbohydrates. Dogs cannot break down this cell wall or digest the vegetables in their short, simple digestive tract unless they are fully cooked or completely pureed.

 

Raw Diets

 

If you feed a raw diet, it is not necessary to add carbohydrates to the diet! Raw diets contain bone and the bone offers the fiber needed to keep stools firm. Carbohydrates do not offer dogs a nutrient value, so they are not needed in a raw diet. Some people like to add vegetables to the diet for variety. When adding vegetables to a raw diet, I do not recommend feeding more than 10% of the total diet with carbohydrates. Adding more than 10% of the total diet in carbohydrates will increase stool size and can cause gas. Again, the vegetables must be completely cooked or pureed in order for the dogs to digest them.

 

For further information on carbohydrates and more references, see the following link:

 

http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/carbohydrates/

 

High Glycemic (Sugar Content) Vegetables

 

Dogs are carnivores and do not need carbohydrates. Their digestive system is not designed to digest carbohydrates and their bodies do not need, nor do they adapt well to, the constant influx of high-sugar foods and high amounts of fiber. Dogs get their energy from animal protein and fat, which are the nutrients they need to survive and thrive. When a dog’s diet consists of too many carbohydrates, more than 33% for example, there is a risk of protein starvation’. When you feed a diet that is 33% carbohydrates, it does not mean the rest of the diet is 66 1/3% protein! This is because there is fat and moisture in the protein, and in some cases bone and connective tissue. Dogs rely on, and depend on, the amino acids found in animal-based proteins. They are important for stamina, endurance, overall health and well-being, and are necessary for healthy kidney, heart and liver function.

 

Food spends less time in our stomach and a longer time in our intestines. The time food spends in the human intestinal tract allows foods to digest and ferment. Humans have a much longer and more complex digestive system than canines. Canines have a short, simple digestive tract and do not digest foods the same as humans do. Canines have more gastric juices in the stomach. As a result, food spends a longer time in the canine’s stomach to break down nutrients and kill bacteria. As a result, food spends a much shorter time in the intestines. Dogs are unable to ferment or break down carbohydrates as efficiently as humans (omnivores) or herbivores can. Because of this inability to break down the carbohydrates, it causes gas and cramps, and creates large, smelly stools. Additionally, it can irritate the intestinal tract and create intestinal inflammation.

 

Carbohydrates may also contribute to health conditions such as diabetes, allergies, inflammatory bowel disease, infertility, low thyroid and yeast growth. They also have the ability to promote urinary tract infections and may contribute to seizure activity in dogs with epilepsy. Additionally, high sugar foods contain more calories, which can result in unwanted weight gain. In the home-cooked recipes I will bring you in next month’s newsletter, I always suggest low glycemic carbohydrates be used. Low glycemic vegetables offer the lowest sugar content.

 

Low Glycemic Diets

 

While the diseases Epilepsy, Hypothyroidism, Diabetes, Allergies, Arthritis, Yeast Infections and Cancer are all very different, they share a common denominator. Diets that are high in sugar and starch can negatively affect these diseases. In my series on Canine Nutrition, published in the B-Naturals newsletters between August 2005 and June 2006, I explained that dogs are carnivores and their bodies are designed to best utilize and digest animal protein and fat. The advent of commercial diets in the last 60 years introduced large amounts of grains and starches. These foods are high in carbohydrates, which all convert to sugar. Besides adding unnecessary sugars to the diet, these foods also add more fiber and bulk to the dog’s system.

 

Sugar directly affects the blood sugar in the body. Canines are designed to make glucose from amino acids (proteins), which keep the dog’s blood sugar levels even. Feeding diets high in grains (wheat, corn, oatmeal, barley, amaranth and rice, just to name a few) and starches (potatoes, sweet potatoes, beets and carrots) cause blood sugar levels to rise and then fall. This type of action has a direct affect on diabetes, can trigger epileptic seizures, creates aggravation in the joints of dogs with arthritis, affects thyroid conditions and lastly, offers energy to cancer cells.

 

As stated in canine nutrition textbooks, no nutritional requirement is given for these types of foods for dogs. The Waltham Book of Companion Animal Nutrition states, “There is no known minimum dietary requirement for carbohydrates”

 

For more information on Carbohydrates in the Dog’s Diet:

 

http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/carbohydrates/

 

With each health condition discussed below, be sure to get a confirmed diagnosis and receive the advice and full treatment recommendation from your veterinarian. The correct diagnosis under proper veterinarian care is the best defense for treating any disease or ailment.

Depending on the dog’s condition, there are two different types of low glycemic diets. This month we are including the “LOW FAT, Low Glycemic” diets, which are suggested for dogs with epilepsy, diabetes, hypothyroidism and Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Next month, when we bring you Part II, we will bring you Low Fat, Low Glycemic Diets, a different low glycemic diet, for a few other health conditions.

 

Epilepsy

 

While research has been done on a low carbohydrate diet for dogs with epilepsy, the results showed that these diets did not help. However, the research did not indicate the type of protein used, or the nature of the diet (dry, fresh, cooked), but the research did contain an extreme amount of fat. Additionally, the diet was inconclusive due to the loss of some participants (owners not complying) and a subsequent low number of dogs that completed the study. 1

 

Other factors that may precipitate seizure activity by feeding carbohydrates could be related to food allergies, gluten intolerance (found in grains) and lack of certain amino acids, such as taurine, which are lost through the process of heavily cooked diets. For more information on this, go to the link below and read the section titled, “The Possible Connection between Grains and Seizures”.

 

http://www.canine-epilepsy.com/healthydiet.html

 

While the connection between carbohydrates and seizures is uncertain, a fresh food diet, which is medium to low fat, high in animal protein, and low in carbohydrates is worth a try, and may help in some instances. Again, removing grains from the diet reduces the chance of gluten intolerance and some allergies. The animal protein provides the amino acids a dog needs and fresh food diets offer more nutrients.

 

An additional supplement that helps reduce seizure activity is DMG, or dimethylglycine. Diethylglycine is a derivative of the amino acid, glycine. DMG helps the neurotransmitters in the body. It is also been found to help control cholesterol; however, this is not an issue with dogs. It also helps boost endurance and stamina. It is thought to help oxidize the blood, which is not only useful for fighting fatigue, but may also be helpful in immune problems and with certain types of cancer treatment. It may also have some usefulness in controlling glucose metabolism and be helpful with brain function.

 

DMG for possible seizure control in dogs:

 

http://www.canine-epilepsy.com/Alternative.html

 

http://www.canine-epilepsy.com/Alternative.htmlhttp://www.drschoen.com/seizures-in-dogs-cats-an-integrative-approach-with-natural-options/

 

Diabetes

 

In small animals, Diabetes is a complex issue. The type of diabetes found in cats and dogs is different. Cats often have Type II diabetes, while Type I is more common in dogs. New research has indicated that higher protein diets are more effective for cats and this research suggests the same may be true for dogs as well.

 

“Diet in the prevention of diabetes and obesity in companion animals”

 

“Conclusion – Consumption of diets with low carbohydrate, high protein, and moderate fat content may be advantageous for prevention and management of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes in cats and dogs. Use of low glycemic index carbohydrates and supplementation with carnitine, chromium, and vitamin A may also be advantageous.” The full article can be seen here:  http://www.vetcontact.com/en/art.php?a=1268&t

 

While studies on cats discuss that cats are carnivores and need protein, dogs are carnivores as well and the same is true for them. Higher animal protein diets create a more even blood sugar level in the blood stream. Fresh food diets provide more optimum nutrition than processed foods by offering a more easily digestible food with bioavailable nutrients. In addition, DMG (Dimethylglycine) is also thought to be beneficial with both hypoglycemia and Diabetes.

 

Hypoglycemia, Diabetes and DMG:

 

http://www.livestrong.com/article/226414-what-is-dmg-supplement/

 

Hypothyroidism

 

Dogs with low thyroid (hypothyroidism) can have issues with pancreatitis until treatment with proper medications can help bring thyroid levels back to normal ranges. Dogs with hypothyroidism tend to do better on homemade diets that are low glycemic, medium fat and contain higher protein levels. For dogs with hypothyroidism, avoid goitrogenic foods. Some goitrogenic foods include soybean and soy products, cabbage, broccoli, turnips, rutabaga, mustard greens, kale, spinach, Brussels sprouts, peaches, pears, strawberries, cauliflower, potatoes or corn. Fully cooking these foods will render them safe to consume for hypothyroid conditions; however, do not feed them as the majority of the diet.

 

“Some experts contend that as little as 30 mg of soy isoflavones will cause trouble by competing with hormones for the same receptor sites on cells. Because of that, they can cause endocrine disruptions. The endocrine system may mistake the isoflavones for a hormone and therefore may not send out signals that the hormone needs to be produced. This can be problematic if you already have lower than normal levels of thyroid hormone production.”

 

To find more information on the warnings about soy, read this article:

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2698128/

 

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)

 

IBD has recently become a more common health problem in dogs. When a dog struggles to digest high fiber commercial foods, laden with carbohydrates, it sets up an inflammatory condition in the intestinal lining. Then, as the inflammation continues, the dog also has difficulty digesting fats. The dry food that consists of large amounts of carbohydrates and fiber aggravates this condition even further. As this occurs, dogs can also develop an intolerance to fat due to the inflamed intestinal lining. When this occurs, veterinarians will often prescribe dry dog food manufactured for this condition. Unfortunately, these foods are even higher in fiber and carbohydrates, are low fat, and often carry a less bioavailable source of animal protein. These higher fiber diets achieve nothing more than additional absorption of the moisture from the dog’s colon. This makes the stools ‘firmer’, however the irritation and inflammation continues in the dog’s digestive tract. The low fat, low glycemic diet (or a raw diet, which is even more ideal), puts less strain on the digestive tract to handle and ‘ferment’ the fiber. At the same time, it offers the dog better nutrition to help heal this condition.

 

Supplements that help heal IBD include probiotic powder (beneficial bacteria to aid digestion), l-glutamine (which helps heal the digestive lining) and animal based digestive enzymes (which help pre-digest fat and protein in the stomach, before reaching the small intestine). A product that contains a good combination of all of three ingredients of these ingredients is the Berte’s Digestion Blend. Taken together, these three products help in cases of poor absorption, diarrhea, and nausea and help heal the intestinal lining.

 

As you can see, the subject of carbohydrates is not a simple one! Please stay tuned for next month’s newsletter when we will bring you information on cancer, arthritis, allergies, incontinence and yeast overgrowth conditions and several low glycemic recipes to benefit these health conditions.

 

1 Publication: Patterson EE. Results of a Ketogenic Food Trial for Dogs with Idiopathic Epilepsy. University of Minnesota PhD Thesis (Chapter 4). © Edward Earl Patterson 2004.



Filed Under (Dog Nutrition) by B-Naturals.com on 01-05-2017
Lew Olson's newly revised edition is filled with an abundance of new topics and information. Whether you are new to home feeding or a seasoned raw feeder, have a senior dog or a new puppy, a pregnant mom or a toy breed, this book presents all the information you need to make the best nutritional decisions for your dog. 

Newsletter Reference by Topic – 2017

Three years ago our New Year’s Newsletter was to give you an easy reference source for information by topic.  We thought it was time to do this again as many new topics have been added and so much updated information has been obtained.  All of the newsletters are linked to the Newsletter page of the B-Naturals website.

History of Dog Food

 

Canine Diet and Diet Health – Resources

 

 

Canine Diet – General Information

 

 

Canine Diets – Specific

Raw Diets

 

Cooked Diets:  Low-Glycemic

 

Mixed Diets – Fresh and Kibble

 

Vegetarian Diets

 

Feeding Performance Dogs

 

Feeding Senior Dogs

 

Feeding Toy Breeds

 

Diet, Pregnancy and Fertility

 

Puppy Rearing, Whelping and Feeding

 

Canine Diets – Ingredient Components

Protein

 

Fats

 

Carbohydrates

 

Supplements

Supplements General

 

Vitamins and Minerals

 

Enzymes and Probiotics

 

Herbs

 

Canine Health Issues and Diseases

General Information

 

Addison’s and Cushing’s Disease

 

Allergies

 

Arthritis and Joint Problems

 

Bladder, Crystal, Stone and Incontinence Issues

 

Blood Work and Blood Values

 

Cancer

 

Diabetes

 

Digestion and Gastric Problems

 

Epilepsy

 

Heart

 

Heartworm:

 

Immune System

 

Kidney

 

Leptospirosis

 

Liver

 

Muscular Dystrophy

 

Pain Management

 

Pancreatitis

 

Stress and Anxiety:

 

Thyroid

 

Tick-borne Diseases



Filed Under (Dog Nutrition) by B-Naturals.com on 12-01-2016
Lew Olson's newly revised edition is filled with an abundance of new topics and information. Whether you are new to home feeding or a seasoned raw feeder, have a senior dog or a new puppy, a pregnant mom or a toy breed, this book presents all the information you need to make the best nutritional decisions for your dog. 

Before deciding on any course of action or treatment plan for your dog, it is critical that you have a correct diagnosis in hand. Time and time again, people post on the K9 Nutrition list a few symptoms their dog is having and ask for suggestions on how they can help their dog. Most often, these concerns pertain to itching or skin problems, upset stomach or loose stools, frequent urination and increased water drinking, or they are a small list of vague symptoms that don’t seem to point to a particular or recognizable problem.

 

Inevitably, this brings a variety of suggestions for supplements and diet changes.  Many of these stem from popular fads frequently seen on the web.  Some include all-in-one remedies for kidney cures, liver treatments and arthritis/joint problems.  Others suggest single potions such as coconut oil, apple cider vinegar specifically mixed, and formulated turmeric concoctions.  Other more expensive recommendations include saliva tests for allergies and intolerances or all-in-one specialty ‘cleansing’ or prescription diets are suggested.

 

While certainly, in a few cases, some of these suggestions can be helpful, oftentimes the dog’s symptoms return, with no resolution to the problem.  When this happens, the owner frequently tries another variety of new remedies hoping to resolve the problem. This tends to result in frustration and disappointment, not to mention the cost of the remedies and the loss of time in getting the real issue resolved.

 

When people give me a list of symptoms and ask me for recommendations for a supplement or diet, I will ask for more information. Most commonly, I will ask what the dog’s current diet is, the history of prior diets, a list of current supplements and remedies they might have tried already, and always, what diagnosis did their veterinarian give their dog.

 

And in most cases, the dog hasn’t yet seen a veterinarian or the owner did not provide enough information to the veterinarian for him/her to know which tests would be most beneficial to run to determine a diagnosis. Below are some examples of this:

 

-The dog is drinking more water and urinating more frequently. Blood work shows BUN is elevated, along with the creatinine showing slightly high elevations. The diagnosis given is renal failure and the question asked me is, ‘what is the right diet?” At that point, I might ask if the veterinarian did a sterile urine culture and did he/she do a leptospirosis blood titer and tick borne disease panel? The reason I ask these questions is because if a dog is showing some indication of renal issues, it is important to find the cause. Generally, dogs don’t suddenly go into renal failure without an underlying reason. In that light, often a diet change isn’t required and simple antibiotics can cure the underlying condition.

 

https://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/struvite-and-calcium-oxalate-stones-and-crystals/

https://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/does-my-dog-have-kidney-disease-what-do-i-do/

 

-The dog has itchy skin and sores. The owner has tried topical treatments, special baths, ‘allergenic’ foods and a supplement or remedy to cure it, to no avail. Often at this point I suggest asking the veterinarian to do a skin scraping and culture to look for either bacteria or a fungal infection on the skin.  In that light, the right antibiotic or fungal medication can resolve the issue.

 

https://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/does-your-dog-have-itchy-skin-poor-coat-and-some-digestion-issues-some-simple-steps-to-help/

 

-The owner has tried numerous remedies for a dog’s lameness with no success. Again, it is important to rule out certain disorders that might cause the lameness.  These include a tick borne disease, Addison’s disease, Valley Fever or leptospirosis.  Arthritis can cause lameness and discomfort, but arthritis is not the only cause.  It is important to look at the whole picture, assess the situation and find the exact cause.  If you suspect the lameness is from arthritis, radiographs are important to diagnose arthritis.

 

Treating Inflammation and Pain in Dogs – October 2013

 

-The dog is showing chronic diarrhea, reflux or gurgling noises between meals.  While certain supplements such as probiotics, digestive enzymes and l-glutamine, may help, it is important to examine the diet, and the diets that were fed prior to these digestive issues.  Certainly, prescription drugs can help temporarily (metronizadole, tylan, antibiotics), however, most often they don’t resolve the underlying problem.

 

https://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/does-your-dog-have-a-sensitive-stomach/

 

My point with this is to stress the importance of knowing what the actual problem is before you start looking for a solution! It is helpful to sit down and write down all the symptoms in a list along with a history and timeline for your dog’s diet, health history, and the dates and timeframes for when the various symptoms occurred.  This can help you better understand when the issues started and what might be the cause.  A visit to your veterinarian with a good history in hand of the symptoms, when they started and what you have tried in the past, can help give your veterinarian clues so he/she can best determine which tests are needed to rule out what the problem is not and get to the root of what the problem really is.

 

Once you have a diagnosis in hand and you know the cause of the problems, you will be able to select the best diet, choose the right supplements that can help, and you can see your dog improve.  Trying to guess what your dog’s problem is on your own and offering various foods and/or remedies ‘willy-nilly’ rarely works.  Also, it frequently costs you more in the long run than a productive visit with your veterinarian. If you can’t get the answers you need from your regular veterinarian, please get a SECOND opinion!

 

Over the years, the right diagnosis has helped me with my dogs in so many ways. I was either able to resolve the problem or work with the condition presented to make my dog the most comfortable.  If your dog has symptoms, it is fine to present this on the K9Nutrition list for ideas on the cause and what tests to run to determine the root of the problem. THEN, with a diagnosis in hand, it is easier to suggest diet changes, supplement additions or deletions, and to get the best recommendations. Please know, there are no ‘miracle’ cures out there no matter what you might read on the Internet or what your friends might tell you.  There is no ‘one’ cure for kidney failure, cancer, allergies, itching skin, arthritis, gastric upsets or other chronic conditions. Most of these issues are complicated and are not ‘one-size-fits-all’. And truly, it is not worth the risk to rely on these without a good visit to your veterinarian, the appropriate tests done to rule out (or ‘in’) what the actual problem is and the cause. That is what will lead you to find the best solutions for your dog.

 

Please feel free to discuss issues with your dog and ask questions about health and nutrition on K9Nutrition. We help as we can with resources, references, advice and sharing our own experiences!

dec16-dogs-1 dec16-dogs-2



Filed Under (Dog Nutrition) by B-Naturals.com on 11-01-2016
Lew Olson's newly revised edition is filled with an abundance of new topics and information. Whether you are new to home feeding or a seasoned raw feeder, have a senior dog or a new puppy, a pregnant mom or a toy breed, this book presents all the information you need to make the best nutritional decisions for your dog. 

I get many questions regarding the best nutrition for dogs as they begin to reach their senior years. Most people want to make sure their companions are comfortable and getting everything they need. So, to answer some of your questions, we’re going to take a look at an overview of diet considerations, common senior health problems, and suggested supplements for seniors.

 

Diet

 

The most common questions I get regarding older dogs pertain to diet. Many people believe they need to feed a senior dog a diet that is lower in protein and fat. Many commercial dog food companies make senior diets that do just that – lower protein and fat. However, the truth is, senior dogs need high amounts of quality protein in their diet and a moderate amount of fat.

 

Protein

 

High quality animal-based protein is essential to canine organ health, muscle tone and healthy skin and coat. High quality protein is even more important for older dogs. As dogs age, their ability to maintain good muscle tone and a strong immune system lessens. This is due partly from inactivity and partly from metabolism changes that occur as dogs get older. Senior dogs that don’t get enough quality and quantity of animal-based protein have less body mass and are more prone to illness and disease.

 

“This research is contrary to conventional opinion that senior dog foods should contain lower protein levels than adult maintenance formulas in order to avoid progressive decrease in kidney function. However, senior dogs that were fed a high-protein diet had stable renal function and a lower death rate than those dogs fed a lower-protein diet”

 

NOTE:

  • Older dogs need more protein than young adults (50% more to maintains protein reserves and lean body mass
  • Prepares body for stress and challenges
  • Good quality protein essential!

So don’t skimp on the protein! Don’t feed your senior dog a reduced protein diet.  Be sure to feed a good raw or home-cooked diet with plenty of quality animal-based protein!

http://www.iams.com/iams/pet-health/body-condition-in-senior-dogs.jsp

 

http://www.iams.com/pet-health/dog-life-stages/nutrition-and-your-senior-dogs-body

 

http://web.archive.org/web/20030826140629/http://speedyvet.com:80/NIP/olddogs/default.htm

http://www.ansc.purdue.edu/swineclass/PDF/Companion%20Animal%20Nutrition_2.pdf

Fat

 

Fat is also important for seniors. Fat is what makes food taste good and when fat is reduced, the dogs tend to crave more food – they are usually looking for more fat. If you have a senior dog that needs to lose weight, do not substitute the fat with carbohydrates (vegetables, grains, starches) thinking you are doing your dog a favor. Carbohydrates can be fattening because they cause increased hunger.  This is because your dog needs and wants fat.  Feeding carbohydrates also increases stool size and gas. Generally, it is recommended to keep the animal protein amounts high and the animal fat at moderate levels – not low levels – and simply reduce the total amount of food fed by 10%. The following article was written by Christie Keith and gives specific instructions on weight reduction:

 

http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/pudgy-pups/

 

Additionally, dogs do not have the ability to break down sugars like we do as they have no amylase in their saliva.  Therefore, the sugars remain on the teeth and gums and cause decay. If your dog has chronic dental problems or bad breath odor, it may be a good idea to switch it over to a homemade diet with no grains or starches. Look to the low glycemic diets listed below.

 

http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/low-glycemic/

 

One health consideration with weight gain in seniors is hypothyroidism. If you have a dog that won’t lose weight by food reduction or increased appetite, it is probably a good idea to get a full thyroid panel on your dog. Hypothyroidism can cause weight gain and other health problems.

 

http://www.thyroid-info.com/articles/dog-hypo.htm

 

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2097&aid=449

 

Health Issues for Seniors

 

Arthritis and Joint Pain

 

Arthritis is probably the most common complaint for dogs as they age.  Joint inflammation and pain can affect dogs in many ways. They may become less active; they may show pain upon rising or after activity, and it can even affect their appetite. Any time you have a dog that shows pain in a joint or the spine, it is important to see a veterinarian and get a full blood panel, urinalysis and radiographs. Many things can cause pain and lameness, including arthritis, pinched nerves, muscle or tendon sprains, renal issues, pancreatitis and Addison’s disease (rear end weakness and muscle loss). In order to treat effectively, a diagnosis is paramount, don’t try and guess the problem. If the problem is arthritis, there are several approaches to try.  EPA fish oil capsules are very effective, as the omega 3 fatty acids found in this animal-based oil helps reduce inflammation. Additional benefits from omega 3 fatty acids is that it is renal, heart and liver protective and it improves skin and coat.

 

White Willow Bark Liquid, derived from white willow bark, is a natural pain reliever. This comes in a liquid tincture and can be dosed in the gum line or mixed with food. Do *NOT* give Willow Bark if you are already giving a NSAID (Rimadyl, Metacam, Deramaxx, etc.). I have used this for my senior dogs during seasonal arthritic pain commonly caused by weather changes. Yucca Intensive is another good herbal product that helps relieve inflammation.  It is given at one drop per ten pounds of body weight once or twice daily.  This needs to be given with food to avoid stomach upset. Lastly, try to reduce the amounts of grains and starches in the diet as these can aggravate inflammation and pain.

 

A good homemade diet to help with arthritis pain and inflammation is the low glycemic diet. You can find information on this diet in this newsletter http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/low-glycemic/. You can also add quality animal protein and fat to a high quality grainless kibble food, which will help reduce the carbohydrates found in dry kibble diets.  You can read this article, http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/mixing-fresh-food-with-kibble/, for more information on adding whole foods to kibble:

 

Urinary Incontinence

 

An issue that may affect senior dogs is leaking urine. This may be due to a weakening of the urinary tract muscles, however, be sure to contact your veterinarian first to test for a urinary tract infection. This would be determined by a sterile urine culture and sensitivity test. This is done in house at your veterinarian clinic to capture sterile urine. This sample is sent off to a laboratory to see if any bacteria should result. This test will not only identify the bacteria, but will also determine the correct antibiotic needed if there is an infection. If there is an infection, generally a four week course of antibiotics is needed. Then ten days after completing the antibiotics, another urine culture should be done to ensure the infection is gone. A UTI (urinary tract infections) can cause incontinence.

 

https://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/struvites-crystals-urinary-tract-infections-treatment-and-diet/

 

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2114&aid=400

 

Diet changes can help. Often diets high in grains or starches, (which would include dry dog food or homemade diets where grains, potatoes, carrots, etc., make up more than 25% of the diet), may make incontinence worse.  Removing the high amounts of sugar and fiber can help in many cases.

 

http://www.auntjeni.com/images/Incontinence.pdf

 

I would suggest trying both of these methods before pursuing prescription incontinence medications. They may be needed, but I would rule these out first. Often a dog with a urinary tract infection is thought to have renal problems. Whenever an older dog is found to have elevated BUN, creatinine and phosphorus levels, be sure to check for a UTI, have a leptospirosis blood titer done, ACTH Stimulation test (Cushing’s and Addison’s disease) and a tick borne disease blood panel. Old age does not cause renal problems. It is wise to run these tests to either find the source of the problem or rule these other health conditions out. With Cushing’s disease, Addison’s disease and leptospirosis, liver enzyme values may be high as well. More information on diets for dogs with renal issues can be found here: http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/kidney-diet/

 

Skin Problems and/or Odor

 

Some senior dogs may develop dry or itching skin and dry hair coat. Sometimes these issues can be taken care of by changing the diet. Increasing the quality and quantity of animal protein in the diet may help. If you are using a senior dog commercial diet, change to an adult diet (higher fat) commercial food or a home-cooked or a raw diet. Fat quality is also important for good skin and coat. I have often found homemade diets reduce odor in dogs, as the fats in dry foods can oftentimes cause body odor. Adding EPA fish oil capsules at one per ten to twenty pounds of body weight daily will help due to the omega 3 fatty acids. If the dog has mouth odor, be sure to have a complete check up on the dog’s teeth and gums. Often teeth in poor condition or gum disease will cause this. Removing grains and starches will often help keep teeth cleaner and reduce the need for dental procedures. As mentioned earlier, dogs do not have the ability to break down starches in their saliva which can, in turn, cause tooth decay and gum disease. Weekly baths with a good quality oatmeal based shampoo such as Pure Pet Care Herbal Shampoo will also help skin and odor. Rinse with a solution of ¼ white vinegar and ¾ water. If the skin problem persists, be sure to have your veterinarian do a skin scraping to check for bacteria, yeast or mites. Both bacteria infections and yeast can cause skin odor. For more information on skin care:

 

http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/skin-care-remedies-and-tips-2/

 

Cognition Problems in Senior Dogs

Symptoms of possible cognitive problems in senior dogs can include confusion, restlessness and less enjoyment of life, and some can have increased house soiling incidences. Research done in humans has also been found to apply to dogs. BOTH senior dogs and people, need MORE protein for good health; especially for heart, kidney and liver health.  Dogs who have been raised solely on dry dog food tend to be more prone to decline in cognitive ability. Studies have shown that when protein levels are increased and antioxidants and fish oil with EPA and DHA (from animal based oils such as fish oils) are added to the diet, senior dogs were known to sleep better and show clarity improvement in their surroundings and had less house training issues. I would suggest senior dogs have a fresh food diet – home-cooked or raw – or a commercial diet with fresh animal protein added in.  Additionally, I think it is important to add a couple of quality supplements.  These would be Berte’s Immune Blend, which contains antioxidants and other good nutrients, EPA Fish Oil capsules at one per ten to twenty pounds of body weight daily and CoQ10 at 2 to 3 milligrams per pound of body weight.  CoQ10 is also thought to help cognition as well.

http://petdiatric.com/documents/Nutritionalsupplementationincasesofcanine.pdf

 

Additional Health Problems of Senior Dogs

 

Adrenal Disorders

 

Cushing’s disease and Addison’s disease are both adrenal disorders caused by either too much or too little cortisol production. Either disease can create a major health crisis. Both diseases can be vague in their symptoms, which can cause these health problems to be over-looked and mistaken for simply being attributed to old age. Cushing’s disease is an over-production of cortisol and symptoms often are mistaken for other ailments. These can include sudden onset of thirst, increased urination, increased appetite, development of a pot belly, poor hair coat and/or skin, dark spots on the belly, more prone to infection and lack of energy. If any of these symptoms occur, have a complete veterinarian evaluation.  For more information:

 

http://www.kateconnick.com/library/cushingsdisease.html

 

http://www.canismajor.com/dog/cushings.html

 

http://www.vetinfo4dogs.com/dcushing.html

 

Addison’s disease is caused by under production of cortisol and there are three types, primary, secondary and atypical. Like Cushing’s disease, the symptoms can mimic other problems and are often over looked or confused with other health problems. These symptoms include diarrhea, lack of appetite, rear end weakness, loss of energy, shaking and depression. Both Cushing’s and Addison’s disease, if not treated can result in death. Your veterinarian can test for either of test with an ACTH Stimulation test. For more information on Addison’s disease:

 

http://www.addisondogs.com/

 

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2097&aid=520

 

http://www.marvistavet.com/addisons-disease.pml

 

Daily Supplement Suggestions

 

Two good supplements for senior dogs include the EPA Fish Oil Capsules and the Berte’s Immune Blend. The Fish oil contains omega 3 fatty acids which help with skin and coat and are renal, heart and liver protective. Recommended dose is one capsule per 10-20 pounds of body weight daily. The Berte’s Immune Blend contains the antioxidants vitamin C and E and also a B complex (good for nerve and eye health), L-Glutamine (helps slow muscle atrophy and helps with digestion), digestive enzymes (helps break down proteins and fats) and Probiotics (help keep the good flora and fauna in the digestive tract).

 

On a final note, it is always important to keep your senior dog in good condition. This means daily walks and exercise as their mobility permits. Good nutrition, bi-yearly wellness checkups at your veterinarians, and keeping your senior physically fit and mentally active will lead to a long and healthy life!

rotweiller-dog-puppy two-dogs-sitting two-dogs-outside



Lew Olson's newly revised edition is filled with an abundance of new topics and information. Whether you are new to home feeding or a seasoned raw feeder, have a senior dog or a new puppy, a pregnant mom or a toy breed, this book presents all the information you need to make the best nutritional decisions for your dog. 

When it comes to your dogs, Fat is where it’s at! Fat is the best source of energy, warmth, calories and hydration. Fat is essential for good canine health. It is important to provide fat sources from animal-based foods in your dog’s diet. In a normal, healthy dog, fat is easier to digest than either proteins or carbohydrates. Studies have shown that animal-based fats digest at a rate of about 95%. Fat is also the primary and best source of energy for dogs. This is especially true for working dogs that undergo stress, and need endurance and stamina, such as sled dogs. (1)

 

Fats, or lipids, have a more complex method of absorption than proteins. Since they are fats and not water soluble, they need to be emulsified. This means they need to be broken down so they can pass through the small intestine. Bile salts from the liver are released from the gall bladder, and aid in fat digestion by enhancing the fat enzyme, lipase. Bile salts coat the fat and enable them to break down into smaller particles called micelles. These break down into monoglycerides and fatty acids. If fat is not being digested properly in a dog, common symptoms include large, foul smelling stools that are often accompanied with mucus, diarrhea and dehydration. The stool is often light in color, coated with mucus and has a loose consistency. Poor digestion of fats can lead to liver disease, pancreatitis (inflammation or disease of the pancreas), Cushing’s disease or diabetes.(2) Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency can be another cause and more details about that disease can be found at the Purina website, www.purina.ca.

 

Fats are essential for several reasons. Fats are necessary for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. They also provide protection from cold and protect the nerve fibers in the body. They provide more calories per gram than carbohydrates or protein, and improve the flavor and palatability of the dog’s food. Fats also help satiate the dog’s appetite. While many commercial dog food brands offer low fat diets to dogs for weight reduction, these foods actually cause the dog’s appetite to increase because there isn’t enough fat to satisfy the dog’s hunger.

 

Fats do not affect canines the same way they affect humans. Fats do not cause high cholesterol in dogs, nor do they cause heart disease. Dogs are carnivores and do not have the ability for cholesterol to clog the arteries or produce strokes. High cholesterol or triglycerides in a dog means there are other health issues present. If your dog tests high for cholesterol, it should be tested for diseases such as hypothyroidism, diabetes or Cushing’s disease.

 

Lastly, fats provide a source for essential fatty acids. Dogs need a good quality source of fat in order to maintain sufficient levels of fatty acids. Rancid fat or poor quality fat, common in commercial foods, can cause a deficiency of these fatty acids.

 

If your dog is suffering from a deficiency of essential fatty acids, the first signs are commonly seen in poor coat and skin condition. This deficiency can show itself as pruritus (itching), dermatitis (skin inflammation) and seborrhea. To help absorb essential fatty acids, a good source of vitamin E is recommended. (3)

 

The two essential fatty acids most commonly discussed for nutrition are Omega 6 and Omega 3 fatty acids. Omega 6 fatty acids are found in animal sources such as chicken and pork. Smaller amounts are present in beef, and larger amounts are found in plant sources such as olive, safflower and other plant oils. Omega 3 fatty acids are less common. They are found in fish oil, other marine sources such as spirulina and blue green algae, and flax seed oil. (4)

 

However, dogs CANNOT utilize Omega 3 fatty acids from plant based sources. They must come from animal-based sources, such as fish oil.

 

Omega 6 fatty acids are more readily available in animal fats and plant sources, so it is easier to ensure your dog is getting enough Omega 6 its diet. Therefore, it is not necessary to add Omega 6 fatty acids to your dog’s diet. However, Omega 3 fatty acids are less common and not as readily available or easy to come by, so it is important to supplement your dog’s diet with a quality animal-based source of Omega 3. The best ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3 is thought to be approximately 5:1 to 10:1. (1)

 

The best sources for Omega 3 fatty acids are found in fish and salmon oil. Fish oil has a readily available form of Omega 3 called EPA and DHA. Plant based oils do not. Therefore, the body must convert these oils before they are beneficial to the body. Most dogs are unable to do this conversion and therefore plant based oils result in a higher amount of Omega 6 than Omega 3. When there are higher levels of Omega 6 to Omega 3, it promotes inflammation, poor coat, allergies and skin conditions.

 

“While flaxseeds or flaxseed oil is not harmful to pets and does supply some essential Omega 6 and Omega 3 fatty acids, flaxseed oil is a source of alpha linoleic acid (ALA), an Omega 3 fatty acid that is ultimately converted to EPA and DHA. However, many dogs and some people cannot convert ALA to these other more active non-inflammatory Omega-3 fatty acids due to a deficiency of desaturase enzymes which are needed for the conversion. In one human study, flaxseed oil was ineffective in raising levels of EPA and DHA. Therefore, I do not recommend flaxseed oil as a fatty acid supplement for dogs with atopic dermatitis (skin problems caused by environmental allergies). Instead, supplement with quality fish oil that provides EPA and DHA.” (5)

 

Other benefits of fatty acids include controlling inflammation, aiding in heart disease, cancer therapy, arthritis and renal disease. In heart disease and cancer, cachexia (muscle wasting) can cause a severity of side effects. Cachexia is caused by excess cytokine production. High doses of fish oil (1,000 mg per ten pounds of body weight) have been found to suppress cytokine, thus increasing life expectancy by maintaining the integrity of the heart muscle and reducing loss of muscle mass in some types of cancer.

 

Because high doses of Omega 3 fatty acids are found to reduce inflammation, fish oil is known to be helpful for dogs with arthritis and orthopedic problems. The anti-inflammatory properties are also helpful with dermatitis and other skin conditions, and certain gastro-intestinal disorders such as Irritable Bowel Disease and Colitis.

 

Lastly, Omega 3 fatty acids are beneficial for kidney disease. They have been shown to be renal protective and in certain kidney disorders such as glomerular disease, fish oil helps to reduce inflammation. (4) (6)

 

In conclusion, EVERY DOG can benefit from the addition of Omega 3 fatty acid sources regardless of their diet (commercial, raw or home cooked), age or health condition. Always look for fish oil capsules that contain at least 180 EPA and 120 DHA per capsule. Avoid bottled oils, as the Omega 3 fatty acids in fish oils are fragile. They are easily destroyed by heat, light and oxygen. Pump bottles introduce oxygen into the oil and therefore, fish oil capsules are best for maintaining the integrity of the oil. Recommended dose is one capsule per 10-20 pounds of body weight daily. Some dogs will eat the whole capsule but other dogs can be finicky. If your dog is finicky, you can open the capsule and put directly on the food.

 

(1) Case, Linda P MS, Carey, Daniel PD, DVM and Hirakawa, Diane A, PhD, Canine and Feline Nutrition, Mosby Press, 1995) 245

 

(2) Simpson, JW SDA BVM Mphil MRCVS, Anderson, RS BVMS Ph.D MRCVS and Markwell, PJ Bsc, BvetMed MRCVS, Clinical Nutrition of the Dog and Cat (Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993) 66-70

 

(3) Kronfeld, DS Phd DSc MVSc, Home Cooking for the Dog, (American Kennel Club Gazette, April) 1978 60-61

 

(4) Kendall, Robert V. PhD Therapeutic Nutrition for the Cat, Dog and Horse, (Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine, Mosby Press, 1997) 62

 

(5) home.ivillage.com

 

(6) www.dvmpharmaceuticals.com

 

november-2016-1 november-2016-2 november-2016-4



Lew Olson's newly revised edition is filled with an abundance of new topics and information. Whether you are new to home feeding or a seasoned raw feeder, have a senior dog or a new puppy, a pregnant mom or a toy breed, this book presents all the information you need to make the best nutritional decisions for your dog. 

Sept 1I occasionally get questions from folks on which carbohydrates are best for their dog’s diet. These questions are asked regardless of whether they are feeding home cooked diets, raw diets, or various commercial dog foods that offer grain-free recipes or foods for dogs with special needs.

Carbohydrates include all vegetables, fruits and grains – or anything grown in plant form. Carbohydrates are made up of chains of sugar and there are differences in these chains from simple sugars (white refined sugar, honey, molasses, white flour and fruit juice) to complex carbohydrates (grains such as oats, rice, barley to vegetables, beans, lentils, pears and potatoes).

Commercial Pet Food

 All Commercial dog foods contain carbohydrates. These foods offer fiber (to help with firm stools) as a less expensive food ingredient and to aid in the ability for dry foods to maintain a longer shelf life. While they serve a purpose in this regard, they also add some liabilities. Carbohydrates make stools larger with more odor and gas, but offer little, if any, nutrition. It is important to do your research if you use commercial food. Shop for a food with the least amount of carbohydrates offered and with a good primary animal-based protein. Some foods are now being offered as grain free. However, remember that the other ‘grain-free’ sources are still carbohydrates, with potatoes being the ingredient most often used. This can benefit dogs with certain grain allergies or a gluten intolerance. Some dogs can have digestive issues when they are fed food with gluten. Additionally, commercial foods that are grain free can be a novel food source to try for dogs with food allergies, however, in my opinion, food allergies are rare and over diagnosed.

 

Sept 2Home Cooked Diets

 Carbohydrates are used in home cooked recipes. The primary purpose for adding carbohydrates is to offer a fiber source, not nutrition. It is doubtful that dogs get much nutrition from carbohydrates. They are carnivores and require animal-based proteins which provide the amino acids, vitamins and nutrients they need. Most carbohydrates are high in fiber and this is what helps keep the stools firm. Without using fiber in cooked meals, the stools would be VERY loose. When using vegetable sources, they must be fully pureed or cooked. Dogs cannot digest grains or vegetables very well unless they are fully cooked or pureed as they do not have the ability to break down the cell wall of carbohydrates and they can’t ferment grains in their short, simple digestive tracts. When using carbohydrates in home cooked diets, I generally recommend using about 75% animal-based protein and only 25% carbohydrates.

High Glycemic (Sugar Content) Vegetables

 Equally important to note is that the type of carbohydrate used affects stool size. Most of the recipes offered in the B-Naturals articles (in the newsletter directory) use low-glycemic carbohydrates. These are vegetables which offer the lowest sugar content. Dogs are carnivores, and genetically speaking, they do not have systems that need or adapt well to a constant influx of high-sugar foods. Dogs need fat and animal protein to survive and thrive. High-sugar foods contain more calories and also add unneeded and unnecessary weight gain. They may also contribute to poor health conditions such as diabetes, allergies and yeast growth.  High-sugar foods can also cause urinary tract infections, adrenal gland and hormone imbalances, and they may contribute to seizure activity in dogs with epilepsy. For more information, see the following article on low glycemic recipes:

http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/low-glycemic/

 

Raw Diets

 Carbohydrates are not necessary in raw diets. Raw diets contain bone which offers the fiber needed to help create firm stools. Some may wish to add vegetables to the diet for variety, but in this case I would not feed more than 10% of the total diet in vegetables. They may not add to the nutrition of the diet, but they aren’t harmful either. Please note that adding more than 10% of carbohydrates to a raw diet will only increase stool size and in some cases may cause gas as the dogs short and simple digestive system struggles with TOO much fiber. Their small intestine is simply not designed to ferment or handle large amounts of fiber. In fact, too much fiber can cause intestinal lining inflammation, which leads to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), colitis, diarrhea, cramping and pain.

 

For further information on carbohydrates and more references please read the following article:

 

http://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/carbohydrates/

 

Incontinence

It is also thought that grains and starches may aggravate incontinence in spayed females and senior dogs. Incontinence is leaking of urine and chronic conditions can lead to rashes, irritation, and urinary tract infections. Removing grains from the diet can oftentimes alleviate the problem and sometimes completely stop the incontinence without having to resort to prescription medications. Also adding the herbal tincture blend, Kidni Kare can help strengthen and tone urinary tract muscles.

 

For more information on incontinence and diet, see Aunt Jeni’s article:

 

http://www.auntjeni.com/incont.htm

 

Arthritis

 Dogs with arthritis or other inflammatory affected problems need to avoid grains and starches. The sugar content of these foods may aggravate inflammation and cause pain. This would include avoiding fruit, as well as vegetables in the nightshade family – ESPECIALLY tomatoes, potatoes, peppers and eggplant. I have had many emails from people over the years testifying that moving their dogs to a raw diet or a low glycemic cooked diets has reduced arthritis pain in their dogs.

Other ways to help reduce inflammation in dogs with arthritis would include adding the following supplements:

Omega 3 fatty acids found in animal-based fats can help reduce inflammation and pain. The best source for these omega 3 fatty acids is found in fish or salmon oil. The EPA and DHA in fish oil helps reduce inflammation throughout the body and also supports the immune system, heart, liver and kidney function and is great for healthy skin and coat. Give one capsule (180 EPA/120 DHA) per 10-20 pounds of body weight daily.

 

All-Zyme and Quercitin/Bromelain capsules can also help reduce inflammation and they both aid in digestion and help reduce gas.

Yucca Intensive, which is a liquid tincture made from fresh yucca, also helps fight inflammation. This plant contains saponins, which help reduce inflammation and pain. Use one drop per ten pounds of body weight, twice daily WITH food. NEVER combine Yucca with any other NSAID, such as Rimadyl, Metacam or steroids!

Hypothyroidism

If your dog has a low thyroid condition, it is important to avoid raw vegetables in the cruciferous family such as cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and cauliflower, as they contain natural chemicals called goitrogens (goiter producers) that can interfere with thyroid hormone synthesis. Interesting, these vegetables are fine when they are cooked, but do not give them raw to dogs with low thyroid problems.

 

Sept 3Conclusion

 While carbohydrates are not necessary in a dog’s diet, they can be useful in certain conditions. They add the needed fiber to a home cooked diet and they are beneficial in certain liver and renal issues where carbohydrates may be needed to add calories, absorb ammonia or reduce phosphorus in the diet.

Using too many carbohydrates however, can cause larger stools with more odor and gas. They are composed of chains of sugar, so they add calories and can adversely affect dogs with diabetes, seizures, arthritis, dogs with incontinence, and dogs with hypothyroid conditions.

Additionally, sugars in the diet can cause tooth decay, staining of the teeth, tear staining, and they can cause yeast to grow topically on the skin, feet, face and ears.

 

Even more concerning, sugar affects the adrenal glands and hormone production. They can adversely affect fertility in dogs which can result in reduced litter size. Sugars may affect sperm production and it also seems to cause heat cycles to occur more frequently in female dogs. Heat cycles occurring more frequently results in poor fertility due to the uterus lining not recovering well enough to sustain fertilized eggs. Raw fed females, typically cycle every 6-12 months, which results in better fertility.

 

https://www.b-naturals.com/newsletter/causes-of-infertility-in-dogs/

Lastly, high carbohydrate and sugar intake can create a hormonal imbalance which affects the adrenal glands. This can lead to Addison’s or Cushing’s Disease.

In certain health conditions, when fat must be reduced, such as pancreatitis or chronic liver disease, high calories carbohydrates such as sweet potatoes, white potatoes or carrots can be helpful for weight gain. When formulating a diet that is low in phosphorus for dogs with chronic renal problems, using low phosphorus carbohydrates is beneficial.  However, fat is usually fine for dogs with renal problems.

 

In order to make the best decision on whether carbohydrates will help or hinder your dog’s health, it is important to know all these variables.  It is not a question of whether or not carbohydrates are ‘good or bad’.  It is about the individual needs of your dogs.

 

The best benefits of a carbohydrate free diet are:

  • Clean teeth
  • Less or no ‘doggy odor’
  • Smaller and odor free stools
  • Better muscling and condition of your dog
  • Increased fertility and sperm production
  • More balanced hormones that help with better health and immunity

It is only in specific health needs (pancreas, liver, certain stone forming conditions) that I would recommend using carbohydrates. For dogs with these ailments, they can be useful for weight gain and to able to offer a full ration of food for calories to help keep the dog satisfied.

 

I hope you found this newsletter helpful.  Your feedback is always welcome.

 

If you have questions about your dog’s diet or about specific health conditions, please take advantage of the B-Naturals Newsletter Archives.  Chances are what you are looking for is right here!



Lew Olson's newly revised edition is filled with an abundance of new topics and information. Whether you are new to home feeding or a seasoned raw feeder, have a senior dog or a new puppy, a pregnant mom or a toy breed, this book presents all the information you need to make the best nutritional decisions for your dog. 

Regardless of the diet choice you make for your dog – kibble, raw or home cooked – the vast amount of supplements on the market today, including vitamins, minerals, digestion aids and anti-inflammatories, can make choosing the right supplements for your dog very confusing. It seems just when we might be getting comfortable with our choices, new products pop up or we read an article that warns us to avoid the supplements we have already been giving to our dogs! We want to feed our dogs the best we can and we want to make sure what we are giving them enhances their health and gives us the best value for our dollar.
 
Minerals
 
First, let’s talk about minerals. I do not ever recommend adding minerals to a commercial diet (kibble or canned). These foods already contain the recommended minerals and you never want to give MORE than the recommended amount. Additionally, some minerals balance each other, such as zinc and copper, and you don’t want to risk unbalancing those minerals. So, do not add minerals to any fixed commercial food diets!
 
Calcium and Commercial Diets and Raw Meaty Bone Diets
 
In a raw diet with bones, you do NOT need to add minerals because the raw meaty bones contain the needed minerals, including the correct ratio of calcium and phosphorus. When feeding a raw diet with bones, you want to avoid supplements that contain minerals. NEVER ADD CALCIUM to a raw meaty bone diet or a commercial dog food diet because too much calcium can harm your dog, especially growing puppies and pregnant dogs!
 
Calcium and Home Cooked Diets
 
If you feed a home-cooked diet however, you DO need to add calcium because you can’t feed cooked bones safely. Calcium is added to the diet based on the amount of food fed and NOT the body weight of the dog. Dogs need about 900 mg of calcium per pound of food served, which is about 2 cups of food. The best source of calcium for a dog, when given as a supplement, is either calcium carbonate or calcium citrate with vitamin D3. These are both economical and can be found at any supermarket or drug store. You can also feed ground eggshells (use a coffee bean grinder to grind the shells). 1/2 teaspoon of crushed eggshells equal about 900 mg of calcium. Vitamin D3 is very important as it helps with the uptake of the calcium. Please note, it is important that the Vitamin D offered to your dog is Vitamin D3, which is animal sourced. Dogs can’t utilize plant based sources of Vitamin D. (More on this later).
 
Again, do NOT supplement with calcium if you are feeding a commercial diet or a raw meaty bone diet because these diets already contain enough calcium.
 
Good Vitamins to Add
Water Soluble Vitamins
Two good water soluble vitamins to add to your dog’s diet are B complex and vitamin C. Water soluble vitamins are not stored in the body, so any excess is flushed out in the urine.
 
B Complex vitamins are good for the nervous system, brain function, cell division (important in pregnancy!), and they help prevent anemia and support memory. This vitamin can be more fragile and doesn’t keep well in commercial foods. They are helpful for pregnancy, puppies and seniors. Turkey and liver are high in B vitamins.
 
Vitamin C was first found to prevent scurvy. But more recently it is considered an anti-oxidant and helps support the immune system. Too much vitamin C can result in diarrhea. If this occurs, just reduce the amount of vitamin C by one dose. I give dogs about 100 mg of vitamin C per 10 pounds of body weight daily. For dogs, the food highest in vitamin C is liver.
 
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Fat soluble vitamins don’t flush out of the body easily. Instead, they are stored in fat. The first fat soluble vitamin I will discuss is vitamin E. This is also considered an anti-oxidant and helps the immune system. It also works with omega 3 fatty acids as these two nutrients need each other to work effectively. Vitamin E also helps with neurological functions and protects against lipid oxidation. I generally give dogs vitamin E at 50 IU per 10 pounds of body weight daily.
 
Vitamin A, Specifically Retinol
Dogs, because they are carnivores, do best with animal-sourced vitamin A, or retinol. This vitamin supports eye health, the immune system and thyroid health. It is rich in liver and organ meats and is also found in eggs and yogurt. Dose is about 25-50 mg per 10 pounds of body weight.
 
Vitamin D3
As mentioned earlier, it is important that the vitamin D given is D3, which is animal-based, such as calcium carbonate (made from egg shells) or calcium citrate. Avoid all plant-based forms, which are often known as D2. Dogs need about 400 IU per 100 pounds, but more can be given – up to double this dose – for immunity. It is also thought to protect against cancer. Vitamin D3 is necessary for the uptake of calcium and it is needed for healthy bones and teeth. It is also helpful to protect against diabetes. Foods containing vitamin D3 included fortified milk products, eggs, salmon and sardines.
 
Digestion Aids
Digestion aids help support the digestive system and are very useful for puppies, pregnant mothers, when you are changing your dog’s diet, for dogs that travel, and for those dogs that suffer from digestive issues.
 
Probiotics
 
These beneficial bacteria help maintain the good flora and fauna in the digestive tract. These help promote well-formed stools, support the immune system and help control excess gas. I find these especially helpful for diet changes, while traveling with my dogs and for puppies. These ‘good’ bacteria also help keep bad bacteria at bay and in check.
 
Animal-Based Digestive Enzymes
These include pancreatin, pancrealipase and ox bile. These animal-based enzymes help pre-digest fats in the dog’s stomach, ease the digestion of fats in the liver and pancreas, increase assimilation of nutrients, and help promote better formed stools.
 
L-Glutamine
This amino acid is used to help heal the digestive tract lining. It has also been used in infants and starvation cases to help with weight gain. Once the digestive tract lining is healed, it continues to help by assisting with property digestion. Dogs with IBD, IBS or colitis have an inflamed digestive tract which can result in diarrhea, mucus covered stool and loss of the ability to absorb all the nutrients. L-glutamine helps heal the lining over several weeks and works to restore health back to the stomach and intestinal lining.
 
Essential Fatty Acids
There are several types of essential fatty acids. Two of the more common ones are omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. Omega 6 is found in most foods and therefore, is abundant in the diet. Because of this, there is NO reason to add more omega 6 to your dog’s diet. Avoid any plant-based oils such as corn, safflower, coconut, olive or canola oil. The essential fatty acid your dog DOES need to balance the omega 6 already in the diet, is Omega 3. It is important to use animal-based sources of omega 3 because dogs are unable to convert the omega 3 oil found in plant oils (ALA) to a usable form. Animal-based sources include fish body oils like salmon, menhaden, sardine or mixed fish oil. Omega 3 oils are fragile and heat, air and light can destroy their properties, so use fish oil CAPSULES rather than bottled oil. Omega 3 fish oil is a natural anti-inflammatory and it helps with the immune system, supports liver, kidney, heart, eye and brain health, and it is very good for the coat and skin. Use fish oil capsules at one capsule per 20 pounds of body weight (generally a capsule is 1,000 mg with 180 EPA and 120 DHA).
 
Arthritis and Inflammation
It is always important to get a diagnosis if your dog is limping, acts sore, has rear end weakness or shows discomfort. While it may be arthritis, it could also be something else. Just a few of the diseases that may resemble the symptoms of arthritis are Addison’s Disease, cancer, Lyme’s or tick disease, or leptospirosis, and more. If the problem IS inflammation, then some following supplements to try include:
 
Fish Oil Capsules: Omega 3 fish oil helps fight inflammation
 
Yucca Intensive: Yucca contains natural steroidal saponins which are powerful anti-inflammatory agents to help reduce pain. DO NOT use yucca with other prescription NSAIDs such as steroids, rimadyl, metacam, etc. Give one drop per 10 pounds of body weight, WITH FOOD, once or twice a day.
 
Glucosamine/Chondroitin Blends – these are thought to help lubricate the joints and repair cartilage
 
Willow Bark Tincture – a natural form of aspirin, only give with food!
 
There are numerous remedies for arthritis on the market. Therefore, always check the ingredients and their safety for dogs! The best diet for a dog with arthritis is a carbohydrate-free raw diet. Carbohydrates are sugars which help promote and increase inflammation in dogs.
 
I know trying to put together all these supplements can seem daunting. To make it easier, I would recommend B-Naturals Berte’s Daily Blend, which contains all the vitamins I have listed, as well as kelp and alfalfa. This is a powder supplement that is easy to mix with your dog’s food.
 
Another choice is Berte’s Immune Blend. This mixture has all the vitamins I have listed with vitamin C and E in double doses. While it doesn’t contain kelp and alfalfa, it does have added probiotics and some digestive enzymes. The Immune Blend is ideal for dogs with health issues but it can also be given to healthy dogs at half dose.
 
For those with dogs with digestive issues, B-Naturals carries Berte’s Digestion Blend. This blend contains the animal-based enzymes, as well as l-glutamine and probiotics. It comes is a palatable powder form that can easily be mixed with your dog’s food or you can mix it with some yogurt.
 
I hope you have found this information helpful. If you have any questions, please email us at B-Naturals and we will answer any of your questions: lewolson@earthlink.net



Lew Olson's newly revised edition is filled with an abundance of new topics and information. Whether you are new to home feeding or a seasoned raw feeder, have a senior dog or a new puppy, a pregnant mom or a toy breed, this book presents all the information you need to make the best nutritional decisions for your dog. 

B-Naturals.com Dog SupplementsIt is becoming more and more common to hear people talk about their dogs having ‘allergies’, ‘food sensitivities’ and ‘sensitive stomachs’, and how these ailments are oftentimes accompanied by odd sores, redness and itching, poor coat and skin, with occasional diarrhea and defy diagnosis!

 

Although I have addressed these issues before, I will state again that allergies, especially food allergies, are rare in dogs. Environmental allergies are more common, but oftentimes it is really yeast (Malassezia) overgrowth. Food allergies are much rarer. A dog needs to be at least 2 years of age or older to have a true food allergy. Food allergies in dogs develop when they are exposed to the same food over and over for long periods of time (i.e., fixed commercial diet or feeding predominately one meat source in a raw or cooked diet).

 

Yeast and Fungi are found in the environment (most often malassezia) and can cause skin issues when a dog has been itching, been bit by a tick or flea, or has become run down. Yeast can bounce back and forth with bacteria on the skin which can cause face rubbing, runny eyes, ear issues accompanied by a brown discharge, and thickening of the skin.

 

Allergies most often occur with hives, or a reddening and thickening of the skin that itches. You can find yeast AND bacteria in the affected areas.

 

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7848179

 

http://veterinarymedicine.dvm360.com/canine-allergic-dermatitis-pathogenesis-clinical-signs-and-diagnosis

 

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2102&aid=321

 

When a dog is having skin and coat issues, my first advice is to have your veterinarian do a skin scraping and culture to determine if yeast and/or bacteria are present. The skin scraping is sent to a lab to be cultured for at least 3 days. The results not only tell if these are present, but also WHAT strain of bacteria is there AND what medication is needed to treat it. The right diagnosis is always the best way to begin treatment.

 

IF your dog has loose stools, with or without vomiting, it can be inflammation of the digestive tract lining. When the digestive tract lining becomes inflamed, food cannot process and digest well, and FATS and CARBOHYDRATES are the hardest foods to digest. Fats tend to just rush through the digestive system oftentimes causing diarrhea with mucus. Carbohydrates (fiber) continue to create irritation and stop any healing process. This in turn, can affect the dog’s whole digestive system resulting in poor coat, red or itchy skin, and reduced immune system response. Bacteria and yeast seem to just flock to these dogs and set up shop on their skin.

 

How is this treated? After a skin scraping and culture are done to determine if bacteria and/or yeast is present and then treated, a diet change can be very helpful. If the dog is eating a commercial pet food, a good change would be to a raw or home cooked diet that contains low or no carbohydrates and reduced fat (at least reduced fat for a few weeks). It is also helpful to feed smaller, more frequent meals for the first few weeks. Less food in the system at one time means less stress on the digestive tract. If you are already feeding a raw diet, remove some of the fat. Remove the skin from chicken parts (NO leg quarters as these are fatty), remove fat from meat and feed protein sources that are lower in fat for a few weeks. Chicken necks without skin (turkey necks too!) are ideal as the raw meaty bone part of the diet.

 

To enhance healing, add l-glutamine at 1,000 mg per 20 pounds of body weight daily. L-glutamine is an amino acid used in premature babies and people who have suffered starvation to assist with healing of the digestive tract lining. Also, add animal-based digestive enzymes (pancreatin and pancrealipase) as these help predigest fats in the stomach before they hit the small intestine. Lastly, add probiotics (beneficial bacteria) to enhance immunity and put the good flora and fauna back into the gut which is often lost when dogs have diarrhea. The Berte’s Digestion Blend contains all of these supplements, however, you may need to add more l-glutamine in some cases.

 

How long do these changes take to heal the digestive tract?

 

Most people get impatient when they don’t see changes right away. You should see improvement in a few days, but it does take a few weeks for the intestinal lining to heal. Usually things go up and down over these weeks, with the good improvements (firmer stools, having ‘to go’ less often, reduced vomiting, and improved skin and coat) slowly getting better and better over time.

 

Once the digestive tract lining is no longer inflamed, you can go back to feeding two meals a day and slowly increase the fat content. I had a dog with this issue 20 years ago and used this method. He healed in about 6-8 weeks and never had another incident. It takes persistence, patience and determination, but the outcome is well worth it! Taking the stress off the digestive tract by feeding smaller, more frequent meals, reducing the fat and removing or reducing the carbohydrates in the diet, all contribute to the healing of the digestive tract lining. When healing occurs, the immune system starts returning to normal and the dog’s coat and skin improve, along with returned energy and more normal stools.

 

To help topically, bathing weekly to cleanse the skin will assist the healing process. Rinse with a solution of ¾ water and ¼ WHITE vinegar. This removes any excess soap AND kills yeast on contact. I use a solution of ¾ witch hazel and ¼ aloe vera or Thayers Witch Hazel with Aloe topically as needed. This helps temporarily stop the itching, cools the area, and helps with healing. I have also used the Halo Derma Dream Salve on affected areas twice daily. This promotes hair growth and also assists in healing.



Lew Olson's newly revised edition is filled with an abundance of new topics and information. Whether you are new to home feeding or a seasoned raw feeder, have a senior dog or a new puppy, a pregnant mom or a toy breed, this book presents all the information you need to make the best nutritional decisions for your dog. 

We always want our dogs to look great and to perform at their very best. We want our working dogs to have steady endurance and drive. We want our tracking and search and rescue dogs to hold the scent and stay on the trail. We want our agility dogs to have the energy and balance to make the jumps, go through the weaves smoothly and effortlessly, and to handle each obstacle with precision. We need our obedience dogs to stay focused and our Schutzhund dogs to have stamina, courage, and stay on task. We want our conformation dogs to have ground covering side movement and to be happy and confident in the ring. And we all want our dogs to have lean, muscular and fit bodies.

 

A good diet provides the energy, strength, lean muscle mass and mental focus that is needed to achieve these performance goals. Let’s take a look at the different diet components and how they help with each of these performance goals.

Carbohydrates

“It takes a lot of energy to digest food, so it is very important to feed foods that are easy to digest, provide the most nutrients, and use the least amounts of energy. For dogs, that food would be fats and protein. The foods to stay away from are carbohydrates.”

 

Carbohydrates are found in plant based foods, which include vegetables, grains and fruit. The two main components in plant based foods are sugar and fiber. Dogs have short and simple digestive tracts which are not designed to ferment high fiber foods and cannot break down the cell walls which are composed of cellulose. The dog’s digestive system struggles to digest these foods which takes greater energy, creates more gas and produces large stools of undigested food matter.”

 

Carbohydrates are also made up of sugar and sugars can cause the blood glucose levels in dogs to go up and down. This in turn causes a dog’s energy level to rise quickly and then drop suddenly. This can create inconsistent energy spurts which can cause your dog to tire out more rapidly. Additionally, fiber binds up the digestive tract which results in a loss of valuable energy. Fat and proteins are much easier for the dog to digest and produce smaller stools. Harder to digest foods mean a full colon, which Dr. Kronfeld, DVM equated to an extra 20 pound handicap on a race horse:

 

https://www.purinaproclub.com/resource-library/todays-breeder/issue-75/feeding-for-performance

Fats

Fat is the most important energy source for dogs. Fats are dense in calories which are needed when dogs are working hard and burning large amounts of calories. Fat also helps protect their cells from damage. The fat a dogs needs is animal fat. These fats are found in meat, eggs and dairy. High fat diets have been the secret for successful sled dog racing teams for years:

 

http://www.livescience.com/2898-iditarod-dogs-endurance-secret-revealed.html

 

Another important fat is omega 3 fatty acids. Omega 3 fatty acids not only help provide energy, they also help the immune system, fight inflammation, help keep the skin and coat healthy and are heart, liver and renal protective. This essential fatty acid is hard to find in foods and breaks down easily when exposed to heat, light or air. I would recommend using fish oil capsules and give one 1000 mg capsule per 10-20 pounds of body weight daily.

 

For more information on animal fats and omega 3 fatty acids see the link below:

 

http://www.theretrievernews.com/uploads/5/0/1/0/50103541/does_diet_affect_field_trial_performance.pdf

Proteins

The second most important energy source for dogs is animal protein. Animal proteins contain amino acids, which when fed in high quality and quantity, produce glucose in dogs. This keeps their energy level on a stable plane. There no energy crash and it will keep the dog focused without mood swings. Feeding a good variety of animal proteins such as beef, lamb, pork, chicken, eggs, dairy and fish provides a wide variety of amino acids and offers better balance to the diet. Each protein varies somewhat in amino acids so providing a good variety of proteins insures the dog will get all the amino acids needed. Amino acids help repair tissue, keep the organs healthy and help build muscle mass. When your dog is on a diet rich in protein sources, and fresh sources offer better quality, there is no need to ever add synthetic amino acids to its diet.

Hydration

Unlike humans, most dogs do not loose electrolytes during exercise because sweat is not a primary avenue for thermoregulation in dogs. Because most healthy dogs do not lose electrolytes, they do not benefit from electrolyte replacement drinks:

Water and Fat Work Together

“Fat is used by the body for energy and can be used as a metabolic water source. Fats are highly digestible, very palatable, and are an energy dense nutritional ingredient. It has an energy yield of 8.5 kcal per gram. They are also essential for the absorption of the fat soluble vitamins, A, D, E, and K. Fat provides a source of metabolic water. Fat metabolism produces 107g of water for every 100g of fat. Protein produces 40g water/100g protein, and carbohydrate produces 55g water/100g carbohydrate. Fatty acid ratio can also help to reduce the production of inflammatory mediators in canine skin, plasma, and neutrophils. Dietary omega-6: omega-3 fatty acid ratios between 5:1 and 10:1 are optimum.”

 

http://www.gamedogshistory.com/forums/topic/feeding-the-performanceworking-dog/

 

Feeding a high fat diet will help keep your working dog hydrated, but water is equally important. It is essential to always provide fresh water for dogs around the clock. Always remember to bring buckets, spray bottles, water and ice to any and all performance events. This is important in both warm and cold weather conditions.

 

Additionally, “Diets which are moderate in protein but high in fat on the other hand tend to help conserve body fluids, in three ways. First they minimize urine output by reducing the amount of nitrogen which must be eliminated from the body. Second, they provide a more concentrated source of nutrients, thereby minimizing stool volume and fecal water losses. Third, dietary fat contributes ‘metabolic water’. Metabolic water is defined as water produced from the metabolism of nutrients. When 100 grams of fat, protein and carbohydrates are metabolized, approximately 107g, 40 g and 55g of metabolic water are produced respectively. Dietary fat yields more than its weight in metabolic body water.”

 

http://www.hilarywatson.com/hydration.pdf

 

Dogs don’t sweat like humans or horses. They only have slight perspiration through their foot pads. However, dogs can lose a great deal of moisture through panting, so it is imperative to keep a performance dog hydrated at all times. The best method for doing this is to feed the dog a moist diet and have water available for them at all times. It is also very important to offer your dog water before, during and after an event, so keep a bucket of water handy throughout the event. At times, you may mean to flavor the water with chicken or beef broth (not with electrolytes, see above) to get the dog to drink or you can offer yogurt. Without proper hydration, a dog quickly loses endurance and energy and it can lead to future health problems.

 

http://www.hydrolyte.us/Arleigh%20Reynolds-Hydration%20Strategies.pdf

Diet

Now, let’s put this altogether! Let’s take a look at the best diet and supplements you can give your dog to

provide high energy levels, endurance and stamina, and lean muscle mass.

 

We know what we need to avoid in their diets; carbohydrates and sugars. That includes grains, fruits and vegetables. It also includes any foods or supplements made with maltodextrin, glucose, dextrin, molasses or honey. While these are found in human body builder supplements (and it is questionable they help humans), they create energy peaks and valleys in dogs. What dogs need for energy are fats and animal based proteins.

 

Fresh raw animal fats and proteins are the easiest for a dog to digest and provide the most nourishment. This diet would include muscle meat, organ meat, fat and bone for calcium with 40% – 45% being muscle meat (beef, pork, lamb, fish), 5% to 10% being beef kidney or liver and the other 50% being meat with bones, which include chicken necks, backs, wings or leg quarters, pork tails, necks or ribs, as well as lamb ribs and turkey necks. If you offer a cooked diet to your dog, then don’t feed bone. Bones harden when cooked and can splinter. Cooked diets would include 75% animal based protein, including eggs, yogurt and organ meat and 25% low glycemic (low sugar) vegetables such as zucchini, broccoli, dark leafy greens, cauliflower and summer squash. To provide the necessary calcium needed, you would add 900 mg of calcium citrate per pound of food served.

 

The idea of offering an assortment of animal based proteins is to insure your dog is getting all of the amino acids. Animal proteins vary in the type and amount of amino acids they contain. There is no need to add amino acids as supplements when you are feeding a fresh, meat based diet. A variety of meat, eggs and dairy contain the correct balance for what your performance dog will need.

 

Dogs need approximately 2% to 3% of their body weight daily in food, while puppies may need as much as 5% to 10%. This amount can vary due to metabolism, activity level of the dog and growth stages in puppies. And remember; don’t keep your working dog too thin. Too little fat can cause a dog to dehydrate faster, and a dog needs to have adequate rib covering for energy. I also feed my working dogs in the morning before an event, but a small, high protein, high fat meal. And you can give a dog an extra boost by giving treats of hard boiled eggs, baked liver pieces, cheese cubes or beef jerky during performance events. And *always* provide a working dog with fresh water at all times possible.

Supplements

The most important supplement to add to a working dog’s diet is omega 3 fatty acids. Fish oil is fragile and can be easily damaged by heat, light or air, so giving fish oil in the form of fish oil capsules offers the best protection. Omega 3 fatty acids help enhance energy, support the dog’s immune system, protect the heart, liver and kidneys, and helps promote healthy skin and a glowing coat. The dose is one 1000 mg capsule (180 EPA/120 DHA) per 10 to 20 pounds of body weight daily. The Berte’s EPA Fish Oil capsules are an excellent choice for omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. Salmon Oil is another good choice, especially for dogs that may have allergies to other types of fish oil.

 

Next, it is important to supplement with the water soluble Vitamin C and B complex vitamins. Vitamin C is an antioxidant and helps with capillary health, prevents bruising, helps fight inflammation and promotes ligament and tendon integrity. The dose for vitamin C with bioflavanoids is given at approximately 100 to 200 mg per 10 pounds of body weight daily given with meals.  For convenience, the  Berte’s Daily Blend is a powdered mix that contains 2,000 mg of vitamin C, 400 IU of dry vitamin E and 75 mg of B complex per tablespoon. It also contains kelp, alfalfa and vitamin D and A.

 

Lastly, probiotics, also known as beneficial bacteria, are necessary for any dog in training and for dogs that travel and are involved in performance work. The beneficial bacteria found in most probiotic blends include acidophilus and bifidus. These help keep the correct balance of good bacteria in the digestive tract, help during times of stress and aid with the absorption of nutrients. These friendly bacteria are also thought to keep ‘bad’ bacterial and fungal infections away. The Berte’s Ultra Probiotic Powder contains a blend of probiotics in an economical powder form, and dogs love the taste! Simply sprinkle on top of each meal.

 

In addition to proper supplementation, to keep a dog at their best fitness level, offer high protein, high fat diets and avoid or keep carbohydrates at levels low. Proper conditioning is also very important. You can’t accomplish this without proper conditioning. You need to plan for 8 weeks of good conditioning, proper diet and supplementation if you want to bring your dog to top form. Please remember, a top athlete needs to continue these good practices throughout their life to maintain their best fitness level!